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Types of compounds acids

Tutormate > CBSE Syllabus-Class 10th Chemistry > Types of compounds acids

02 Acid, bases and salt


Chemical properties of compounds are been classified into three groups:

  • Acids,
  • Bases, and
  • Salts


  • The word acid comes from a Latin word ‘acere’ which means ‘sour’.
  • Acids are chemical substances which have a sour taste in aqueous medium.
  • Acids change the colour of blue litmus to red.
  • An acid is a molecule which can donate a hydrogen ion (H) and still remain energetically favorable.
  • Acids present in plant materials and animals are called organic acids.
  • They are naturally occurring acids.
  • Some of the organic acids are: Acetic acid (or Ethanoic acid), Citric acid, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, Oxalic acid and Formic acid (or Methanoic acid).
  • The acids prepared from the minerals of the earth are called mineral acids. Examples of Mineral acids are Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid and Nitric acid.


Acids can be classified as:

Natural and mineral acids

  • Natural acids: These acids are present in food. For example, acetic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, etc.
  • Mineral acids or inorganic acids: These acids are used in various laboratory processes like Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid etc.

Strong Acids and Weak Acids

  • Strong acids: All the mineral acids are strong acids.
  • Weak Acids: Most of the organic acids are weak acids.

Concentrated and Dilute Acids:-

  • Concentrated and diluted acids are defined by the amount of water in the acid
  • Concentrated acid: A concentrated acid is one which contains the least possible amount of water in it.
  • Diluted acid: A diluted acid is one which contains much more percentage of water in it.

Diluting Acids:-

  • Acid is diluted by adding concentrated acid to water with gradual stirring.
  • When you dilute an acid to make a lower concentration, you never add water to acid, you instead add acid to water.


  • The properties of acids are:
  • Acids have a sour taste.
  • Acids turn blue litmus to red.
  • Acid solution conducts electricity that is they are electrolytes
  • Acids react with metals to form hydrogen gas
  • Acids are corrosive
  • Acids have a pH less than 7

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