Types of compounds acids

Tutormate > CBSE Syllabus-Class 10th Chemistry > Types of compounds acids

02 Acid, bases and salt

TYPES OF COMPOUNDS

Chemical properties of compounds are been classified into three groups:

  • Acids,
  • Bases, and
  • Salts

ACIDS:

  • The word acid comes from a Latin word ‘acere’ which means ‘sour’.
  • Acids are chemical substances which have a sour taste in aqueous medium.
  • Acids change the colour of blue litmus to red.
  • An acid is a molecule which can donate a hydrogen ion (H) and still remain energetically favorable.
  • Acids present in plant materials and animals are called organic acids.
  • They are naturally occurring acids.
  • Some of the organic acids are: Acetic acid (or Ethanoic acid), Citric acid, Lactic acid, Tartaric acid, Oxalic acid and Formic acid (or Methanoic acid).
  • The acids prepared from the minerals of the earth are called mineral acids. Examples of Mineral acids are Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid and Nitric acid.

TYPES OF ACIDS

Acids can be classified as:

Natural and mineral acids

  • Natural acids: These acids are present in food. For example, acetic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, etc.
  • Mineral acids or inorganic acids: These acids are used in various laboratory processes like Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid etc.

Strong Acids and Weak Acids

  • Strong acids: All the mineral acids are strong acids.
  • Weak Acids: Most of the organic acids are weak acids.

Concentrated and Dilute Acids:-

  • Concentrated and diluted acids are defined by the amount of water in the acid
  • Concentrated acid: A concentrated acid is one which contains the least possible amount of water in it.
  • Diluted acid: A diluted acid is one which contains much more percentage of water in it.

Diluting Acids:-

  • Acid is diluted by adding concentrated acid to water with gradual stirring.
  • When you dilute an acid to make a lower concentration, you never add water to acid, you instead add acid to water.

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS:

  • The properties of acids are:
  • Acids have a sour taste.
  • Acids turn blue litmus to red.
  • Acid solution conducts electricity that is they are electrolytes
  • Acids react with metals to form hydrogen gas
  • Acids are corrosive
  • Acids have a pH less than 7

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