Strength of acids and bases

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02 Acid, bases and salt

WHAT DO ALL ACIDS AND BASES HAVE IN COMMON?

  • Substances around us are made of acid, base or salt like curd, water, tamarind, lemon, acid rain, etc.
  • They have varying properties and specific properties depending on their chemical nature.
  • They may taste sour or bitter or other distinctive taste as per their chemical composition. So, substances are divided into acidic, basic and neutral depending on their chemical composition.

DETECTION OF STRENGTH OF ACID AND BASE SOLUTIONS:

  • The strength of acids and bases depends on the number of H+and OH ions produced.
  • Acids that provide more number of H+ions are known to be strong acids and vice versa.
  • The strength of an acid depends on the concentration of hydronium ion (H3O+) too.
  • The strength of an acid or base can also be determined by the degree of ionisation of acids and bases which differ for different acids and bases.
  • In pure water, the concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions are equal.
  • Thus,
    • For acidic solution: [H3O+] > [OH]
    • For neutral solution: [H3O+] = [OH]
    • For basic solution: [H3O+] < [OH]

HOW TO CALCULATE pH?

  • Activity has no units and is defined in terms of H+ ion concentration,
  • aH+ = [H+]/mol L-1
  • Hence, the pH of a compound is given as,
  • pH = -log aH+

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