03 Metals and non-metals

  • An alloy is prepared by mixing the various metals in the molten state in required proportions.
  • In general:
    • Alloys are stronger than the metals from which they are made.
    • Alloys are harder than the constituent metals.
    • Alloys are more resistant to corrosion.
    • Alloys have lower melting points than the constituent metals.
    • Alloys have lower electrical conductivity than the pure metals.


  • Brass: Brass is an alloy of Copper(Cu) and Zinc(Zn)Brass is used for making cooking utensils, screws, nuts, bolts, wires, tubes, microscopes and ornaments.
  • Bronze: Bronze is an alloy of Copper and Tin (Cu and Sn). It is used for making cooking utensils, statues, coins, medals, and ship’s propellers.
  • Solder: Solder is an alloy of lead and tin (Pb and Sn). it has a low melting point. So, it is used for soldering (or welding) electrical wires together.
  • Amalgam: An alloy of mercury with one or more other metals is known as an amalgam. An amalgam consisting of mercury, silver, tin and zinc is used by dentists for fillings in teeth.
  • Alloys of Gold: Gold is alloyed with a small amount of silver or copper to make it hard. This alloy of gold is more suitable for making ornaments because it becomes easier to work with it).

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