The chromatin material is a thin, thread-like intertwined mass of chromosome material present in the nucleus of the cell.
It is composed of the genetic substance DNA i.e. deoxyribonucleic acid and proteins i.e. histones.
Distinct segments of DNA are called genes.
Genes are arranged in a linear order along the chromosomes.
A gene is the functional unit of chromosome.
The chromatin is condensed into two or more thick ribbon like chromosomes during the division of cell.
The term chromosome is derived from the Greek words for the color called chroma and body which is soma.
This is because of the structure of chromosome or because they are cell structures or bodies that are heavily stained by some colorful dyes used in research.
Chromosomes are compact thread-like bodies woven together.
These are formed at the time of cell division from chromatin material.
DNA is responsible for storing and transmitting the hereditary information from one generation to another.
They are located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells.
Each chromosome is made of proteinsand a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA that are passed from parents to offspring, over generations.
DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature different from the other.
It ensures uniqueness of an individual.
Properties of Chromosomes:
Bundles of tightly coiled DNA located within the nucleus of almost every cell in our body make up chromosomes.
There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
The unique structure of chromosome keeps DNA tightly wrapped around spool-like proteins, called histones. Otherwise, DNA molecules would be too long to simply fit inside cells because if all of the DNA molecules in a single human cell were unwound and placed tail-to-tail, they would stretch about 6 feet.
Cells must constantly divide to produce new cells to replace old, worn-out cells so that an organism is able to grow and function properly.
Chromosomes are an essential part of the process of cell division that ensures DNA is accurately copied and distributed. Yet, mistakes occur on rare occasions leading to disorders like cancer.
In humans, defective chromosomes made up of joined pieces of broken chromosomes cause one type of leukemia and some other cancers.
Cell organelles are structures present within the cell that are special and specific to their function.
Cytoplasm is one of the cell organelles that make the cells a self-sufficient element.
The three main constituents of cells are: plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm.
The cell membrane or plasma membrane: It is a bi-lipid membranous layer that separates the cell organelles from its external environment as well as from the other cells. It is the outer covering of a cell that encloses all other parts, including cytoplasm and nucleus.
The nucleus: It is the largest organelle and the remote control of a cell.
The cytoplasm: It is a jelly-like substance in which the cell organelles are embedded.
All the cell organelles like mitochondria, ribosomes, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, etc., are embedded or suspended in the cytoplasm.
It is a semi-liquid jelly-like component that connects the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Cytoplasm can be easily observed under a microscope by staining technique.
Most of the chemical reactions and majority of cellular metabolism within a cell take place in the cytoplasm.
Protoplasm is the whole cellular content of a living cell.
It is made up of the nucleus, cytoplasm and all other living components of the cell.
Cytoplasm is a part of cell that between the plasma membrane and nuclear envelope
Cytosol (cytoplasm) acts as a store of vital chemicals such as, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, ions, etc.
It is the site of certain metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis. Synthesis of fatty acids, nucleotides, and some amino acids also take place in the cytosol.
Living cytoplasm is always in a state of movement.