A sound wave can be described completely by its five characteristics:

- Wavelength
- Amplitude
- Time-period
- Frequency
- Velocity (or Speed)

- Wavelength is the minimum distance in which a sound wave repeats itself.
- The SI unit for measuring wavelength is metre (m).

Amplitude of the wave is the magnitude of the maximum disturbance in the medium on either side of the mean value

- The time required to produce one complete wave (or cycle) is called time-period of the wave.
- The time taken for one complete oscillation is called the time period of the sound wave.
- Its SI unit is second (s).

- The number of complete waves (or cycles) produced in one second is called frequency of the wave.
- The number of such oscillations per unit time is the frequency of the sound wave.
- The SI unit of frequency is hertz (which is written Hz).
- The frequency of a wave is the reciprocal of its time-period.

$F=\frac{1}{T}$

- The faster an object vibrates, i.e. the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch of the sound.

The difference between a male’s voice and female’s is because the voice of a male has a lower frequency which contributes to the deepness or the bass in the voice. Female, in contrast, has a voice with higher frequency resulting in a higher shrillness or pitch.

The speed of sound is defined as the distance which a point on a wave, such as a compression or a rarefaction, travels per unit time.

We know that,

λ is the wavelength of the sound wave, which is the distance travelled by the sound wave. Then we get:

$v=\frac{\lambda}{T}$$v=f\times \lambda $

That is, Speed / Velocity of wave = Frequency x Wavelength

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