022 6236 4602


06 Population

Population is the total number of people living in a particular city, state or country. Census is an official record of population and is conducted periodically.

Population size and distribution:

India’s population size and distribution by numbers

  • According to the census of March, 2011 the population of India reached 1210.6 million and accounted for 17.5% of the world population.
  • Almost 50% Indians lived in Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Rajasthan, the largest state had 5.5% of the total population.
  • Uttar Pradesh with a population of 199 million or 16% of the Indian population was the most populous state.
  • Sikkim had 0.6 million and Lakshadweep had 64,429 people.

India’s Population Distribution by density

  • Population density is calculated as the number of persons per unit area.
  • In 2011, India had 382 people per square km of area.

Population growth and processes of Population Change

  • Births, deaths and migrations influence numbers, distribution and composition of population

Population growth

  • Change in number of inhabitants of a country or territory during a specific period of time is called population growth.
  • This can be expressed in two ways:
    • Absolute numbers:
    • Percentage change per year:

Process of Population Change/ Growth

  • The three main processes are:
    • Birth rate: The number of live births per thousand persons in a year.
    • Death rate: The number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.
    • Migration: The movement of people across regions and territories

Age composition

  • It is a basic characteristic and refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.
  • The population is grouped into three broad categories:
    • Children (generally below 15 years)
    • Working age (15-59 years)
    • Aged (Above 59 years)

Sex Ratio

  • The number of females per 1000 males in the population is called sex ratio.

Literacy rates

  • As per the Census of 2001, a person aged 7 years and above who can read and write with understanding in any language, can be treated as literate.

Occupational structure

  • The distribution of population according to different types of occupations is called occupational structure.
  • Occupations are classified as Primary, Secondary, Tertiary activities.


  • Due to efforts of the government in improving public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment health conditions have improved

Adolescent Population

  • Adolescents constitutes one-fifth of the total population in India.

National Population Policy

  • The National Population Policy (NDP) was launched in 2000.

NPP 2000 and Adolescents

  • The policy emphasizes on adolescents’ requirements of adequate nutrition and protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.

Start your learning Journey !

Get SMS link to download the app