Major physiographic divisions:
1. The Himalayan Mountains
- These mountain ranges run in a west-east direction from the Indus to the Brahmaputra. The Himalayas covers a distance of about 2,400 Km. Their width varies from 400 Km in Kashmir to 150 Km in Arunachal Pradesh.
- The Himalaya consists of three parallel ranges in its longitudinal extent.
The Greater or the Inner Himalayas
The Lesser Himalayas or the Himachal
Regional Division of the Himalayas:
- The part lying between Indus and Satluj are known as Kashmir and Himachal Himalaya.
- The part of the Himalayas lying between Satluj and Kali rivers is known as Kumaon Himalayas.
- The Kali and Teesta rivers demarcate the Nepal Himalayas.
- The part lying between Teesta and Dihang rivers is known as Assam Himalayas.
The Punjab Plains:
The Western part of the Northern Plain is referred to as the Punjab Plains.
The Ganga Plains:
The Ganga plain extends between Ghaggar and Teesta rivers.
The Brahmaputra Plain:
This part particularly lies in Assam.
The Northern Plains are divided according to the variations in relief features. They are.
- Bhabar formed by the deposition of pebbles by the rivers that descend from the mountains.
- Terai is where the streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region.
- Bhangar is the largest part of the northern plain and is formed of older alluvium.
- Khadar are newer, younger deposits of the floodplains.
3. The Peninsular Plateau
- It is a tableland composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- This plateau consists of two broad divisions.
The Central Highlands lies to the north of the Narmada River and covers a major area of the Malwa plateau.
The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada.