Water Scarcity and the Need for Water Conservation and Management
Water scarcity is a result of over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
Water scarcity may be considered to be an outcome of large and growing population and consequent greater demands for water, and unequal access to it.
Multi-purpose River Projects and Integrated Water Resources Management
In recent times the purpose of dams extends to electricity generation, water supply for domestic and industrial uses, flood control, recreation, inland navigation and fish breeding.
So, dams are referred to as multi-purpose projects in which the many uses of the impounded water are combined with one another.
Multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition in recent times.
A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.
Dams are classified according to structure, intended purpose or height.
Narmada Bachao Andolan
Narmada Bachao Andolan or Save Narmada Movement is a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) that mobilised tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river in Gujarat.
This resulted from the objections raised by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh governments regarding the diversion of more water at Koyna by the Maharashtra government for a multipurpose project.
Water harvesting system was a viable alternative to many, both socio-economically and environmentally given the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multi-purpose projects.
‘Rooftop rainwater harvesting’ was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan.
Agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures in arid and semi-arid regions.
Bamboo Drip Irrigation System
A 200-year-old system of tapping stream and spring water by using bamboo pipes, is prevalent in Meghalaya.
About 18-20 litres of water enter the bamboo pipe system.
It is transported over hundreds of metres, and at the site of the plant, it reduces to 20-80 drops per minute.