022 6236 4602

Minerals and Energy Resources

Tutormate > CBSE Syllabus-Class 10th Geography > Minerals and Energy Resources

05 Minerals and Energy Resources

What is a mineral?

  • Mineral is defined by geologists as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure”.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

Where are these minerals found?

  • Minerals generally occur in the following forms:
    • In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints.
    • In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers.
    • Bauxite is formed by the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.
    • Certain minerals may occur as alluvial deposits, called placer deposits, in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.
    • Vast quantities of minerals are present in ocean waters, but are mostly very widely diffused and are not of economic significance.

Ferrous Minerals

Iron Ore

  • India has abundant good quality iron ores which is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development.
  • The major iron ore belts in India are:
  • Odisha-Jharkhand belt
  • Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt
  • Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt
  • Maharashtra-Goa belt



  • The major use of manganese is in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy.
  • Manganese is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.

Non-Ferrous Minerals


  • The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh, Khetri mines in Rajasthan and Singhbhum district of Jharkhand are leading producers of copper.
  • Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries due to its malleability, ductility and being a good conductor.



  • Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput district are the most important bauxite deposits in the state.
  • Amarkantak plateau, Maikal hills and the plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni are main bauxite deposits of India.

Non-Metallic Minerals

  • Mica is one of the most indispensable minerals used in electric and electronic industries due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage.

Rock Minerals

  • Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

Hazards of Mining

  • Miners are vulnerable to pulmonary diseases because of the dust and noxious fumes inhaled by them.
  • In addition, the risk of collapsing mine roofs, inundation and fires in coalmines are a constant threat to miners.

Conservation of Minerals

  • In order to use our mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner.
    • Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes.
    • Constantly evolving improved technologies to allow use of low grade ores at low costs.

Energy Resources

Conventional Sources of Energy


  • Coal used for power generation, for supplying energy to industry and for domestic needs and for meeting commercial energy requirements.
  • Coal formation depends on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial.



  • Petroleum or mineral oil provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
  • Mumbai High accounts for 63% of India’s petroleum production, Gujarat contributes 18% and Assam contributes 16%.
  • Ankeleshwar is the most important field of Gujarat and Assam is the oldest oil producing state of India where Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran-Hugrijan are the important oil fields.


Natural Gas

  • Natural gas is considered fuel for the present century as it is an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions.
  • It is becoming widely popular in India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG ) for vehicles to replace liquid fuels.



  • Electricity is generated mainly in two ways:
    1. By running water which drives hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity
    2. By burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to drive turbines to produce thermal power.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Nuclear or Atomic Energy

  • It is obtained by altering the structure of atoms which releases energy in the form of heat which is used to generate electric power.


Solar Energy

  • Solar energy is becoming rapidly popular in rural and remote areas as big solar power plants in different parts of India will minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes.


Wind power

  • India has great potential of wind power and the largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai.



  • It has higher thermal efficiency in comparison to kerosene, dung cake and charcoal.
  • Biogas is the most efficient use of cattle dung and improves the quality of manure and also prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.


Tidal Energy

  • Tidal energy is the generation of electricity from oceanic tides.
  • The Gulf of Khambhat, the Gulf of Kuchchh in Gujarat on the western coast and Gangetic delta in Sunderban regions of West Bengal are ideal for utilising tidal energy in India.


Geo Thermal Energy

  • Geo thermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth.
  • Two experimental projects that have been set up located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the Puga Valley, Ladakh.

Conservation of Energy Resources

  • Using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
  • Switching off electricity when not in use.
  • Using power-saving devices.
  • Using non-conventional sources of energy.

Start your learning Journey !

Get SMS link to download the app