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Life Processes

01 Life Processes



  • Certain functions and processes give rise to life on earth.
  • Some processes are for obtaining nutrition and some others help in procreating offspring.
  • Life processes are those that maintain body functions and are essential for survival.
  • Some sort of movement, either visible like growth-related or other movements or invisible movements such as movement of molecules in the body, are a characteristic of life.
  • The basic life processes common to all the living organisms are:
  • Nutrition and Respiration
  • Transport and Excretion
  • Control and Coordination (Response to stimuli)
  • Growth; Movement and Reproduction

Characteristics of Living Organisms and Energy:


  • A living thing is defined in the dictionary as “An individual form of life, such as a bacterium, protist, fungus, plant or animal consisting of a singular cell or a complex of cells in which cell organelles or organs work together to carry out the various processes of life.”
  • Life is associated with movements like breathing, chest moving up and down.
  • Similarly, a green leaf is considered to be alive.
  • However, there are some plants that are not green.
  • So, living things may be considered as organisms that are capable of procreating or reproducing.
  • Few examples of living things are birds, insects, animals, trees, human beings that are characterized by eating, breathing, reproduction, growth, and development, etc.
  • Living organisms are well-organized structures.
  • They may have tissues, in tissues they have cells and further cells have smaller components in them.
  • Due to the effect of the environment over time, there is continuous breakdown in this organisation.
  • So, living organisms keep repairing and maintaining their structures.
  • Because all these structures are made up of molecules they are required to move molecules around all the time.
  • Energy is needed for the Life Processes.
  • Food is a kind of fuel which provides energy to all the living organisms.



The following are the characteristics of living things:

  • Cell or cells are the building blocks of living things.
  • Living things obtain and use energy to survive.
  • Living things are characterized by the unique ability to reproduce, grow, metabolize, respond to stimuli, adapt to the environment, move and respire.

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