As population is increasing, there is need to increase production of both plants and animals.
There have been a variety of ‘revolutions’, which helped India become self-reliant. These revolutions include:
Green revolution (high production of food grains),
Blue revolution (enhanced fish production),
White revolution (increased milk production), and
Yellow revolution (increased oil production).
Sustainable agriculture adopts various farming techniques in order to increase the crop production for the growing demand.
These techniques include: Mixed farming, crop rotation, intercropping and integrated farming (also known as integrated agriculture).
ADVANTAGES OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:
It achieves the integration of natural biological cycles and controls.
Sustainable agriculture protects and renews soil fertility and the base of natural resources.
It also optimizes the management and use of farm resources.
It reduces the use of non-renewable resources and purchased production inputs.
Provides an adequate and dependable form of income.
Promotes opportunity in family farming and farm communities.
Organic farming implies raising crops without the use of toxic chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides or any other genetically modified organisms.
Organic farming helps prevent pollution of any component of our environment.
It helps recycle farm wastes.
The foods that are obtained from organic farming are free from pesticides and toxic chemicals.
Soil health can be maintained by organic farming
The cropping system of organic farming keeps insect pests and weeds under check.
NUTRIENTS MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC FARMING
Organic farming is a healthy way of farming for both crops as well as consumers.
Composted organic manureis used for nutrition of crops which thus, improve the organic content and fertility of the soil.
Bacterial and fungal bio-fertilizers are used apart from manures, for enhancing the soil nutrients.
WEED AND PEST MANAGEMENT
Crop rotation, mixed cropping, organic control, hand weeding are the other techniques used in organic farming make it the best method to maintain soil fertility and for pest- weed control.
Natural or other organically approved insecticides like neem pesticides are also used at times.
Crop yield may also be reduced due to diseases. So it can be a major concern for organic farmers.
To prevent various plant diseases, farmers supply important macro and micronutrients and adopt crop rotation.
In addition, soil is enriched with useful microbes, fungi and bacteria to prevent harmful organisms and keep them in check.
Successful organic products include organic fruits and vegetables and recently, dairy products.
Livestock is another example of organic farming that follow a strict means of farming for example, animals feed on organic food only and no hormones or other genetic engineering practices for high yield are allowed on animals.