Improvements in Food Resources

Tutormate > CBSE Syllabus-Class 9th Biology > Improvements in Food Resources

02 Sustainable Agriculture and Organic Farming

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND ORGANIC FARMING

  • As population is increasing, there is need to increase production of both plants and animals.
  • There have been a variety of ‘revolutions’, which helped India become self-reliant. These revolutions include:
    • Green revolution (high production of food grains),
    • Blue revolution (enhanced fish production),
    • White revolution (increased milk production), and
    • Yellow revolution (increased oil production).

SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

  • Sustainable agriculture adopts various farming techniques in order to increase the crop production for the growing demand.
  • These techniques include: Mixed farming, crop rotation, intercropping and integrated farming (also known as integrated agriculture).

ADVANTAGES OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE:

  • It achieves the integration of natural biological cycles and controls.
  • Sustainable agriculture protects and renews soil fertility and the base of natural resources.
  • It also optimizes the management and use of farm resources.
  • It reduces the use of non-renewable resources and purchased production inputs.
  • Provides an adequate and dependable form of income.
  • Promotes opportunity in family farming and farm communities.

ORGANIC FARMING

  • Organic farming implies raising crops without the use of toxic chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides or any other genetically modified organisms.
  • Advantages:
    • Organic farming helps prevent pollution of any component of our environment.
    • It helps recycle farm wastes.
    • The foods that are obtained from organic farming are free from pesticides and toxic chemicals.
    • Soil health can be maintained by organic farming
    • The cropping system of organic farming keeps insect pests and weeds under check.

NUTRIENTS MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIC FARMING

  • Organic farming is a healthy way of farming for both crops as well as consumers.
  • Composted organic manureis used for nutrition of crops which thus, improve the organic content and fertility of the soil.
  • Bacterial and fungal bio-fertilizers are used apart from manures, for enhancing the soil nutrients.

WEED AND PEST MANAGEMENT

  • Crop rotation, mixed cropping, organic control, hand weeding are the other techniques used in organic farming make it the best method to maintain soil fertility and for pest- weed control.
  • Natural or other organically approved insecticides like neem pesticides are also used at times.

DISEASE MANAGEMENT

  • Crop yield may also be reduced due to diseases. So it can be a major concern for organic farmers.
  • To prevent various plant diseases, farmers supply important macro and micronutrients and adopt crop rotation.
  • In addition, soil is enriched with useful microbes, fungi and bacteria to prevent harmful organisms and keep them in check.
  • Successful organic products include organic fruits and vegetables and recently, dairy products.
  • Livestock is another example of organic farming that follow a strict means of farming for example, animals feed on organic food only and no hormones or other genetic engineering practices for high yield are allowed on animals.

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