Diversity in Living Organisms

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08 Kingdom animalia II

Phylum 10 Vertebrata

  • These Animals have vertebral column.
  • Ventral heart, with dorsal and ventral blood vessel and closed blood vascular system.
  • They have Complete digestive system.
  • A cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton present in majority of members.
  • Possess notochord.

Class 1. Pisces

  • Animals belonging to this class have streamlined body which is either laterally compressed or spindle-shaped or dorsoventrally flattened and disc shaped.
  • Their skin is tough and covered with scales.
  • Respiration is carried out through gills.
  • They have fins for locomotion.
  • Muscular tail is used for movement.
  • Their heart is two chambered.
  • Examples- Sharks, Rays, Lampreys, etc

Class 2. Amphibia

  • These animals live partly in fresh water and partly on land
  • Their skin is smooth or rough, moist, slimy, glandular and mostly without scales.
  • Body of the amphibians includes a distinct head and trunk and has no neck.
  • Two pairs of pentadactyl (five digit) limbs are present. Digits or toes are without claws.
  • Three-chambered heart has two auricles and one ventricle.
  • Respiration is carried out either by gills, lungs, skin.
  • They are Oviparous and cold blooded animals
  • Examples – Rana catesbeiana (bull frog), Hyla cinerea (tree-frog)

Class 3. Reptila

  • They are Ectothermic or cold-blooded, terrestrial or aquatic vertebrates a body covered with dry.
  • Body of reptiles varies in form and is usually divided into head, neck, trunk and tail.
  • Limbs with clawed digits are present.
  • Respiration is carried out through lungs only.
  • Heart is three chambered and is divided into two auricles and an incompletely divided ventricle.
  • Examples: Testudo (land-tortoise), Uromastix (sand-lizard), Hemidactylus (house wall-lizard), Draco (flying-lizard), chamaeleon.

Class 4. Aves

  • These are warm-blooded with various flight adaptations.
  • Feathers cover most of their body.
  • Fore-limbs are modified into wings for flight.
  • Hind-limbs bear four clawed digits.
  • Narrow jaws form a horny break.
  • Bones of endoskeleton are light and spongy due to the presence of air cavities
  • Respiration is carried out through lungs.
  • Four-chambered heart with two auricles and two ventricles present.
  • Examples – Parrot, Owl, Eagle, etc

Class 5. Mammalia

  • Mammals are warm-blooded (endothermic and homeothermic) and the most evolved animals of animal Kingdom.
  • Hair and the subcutaneous fat form an insulating layer. Sweat glands, scent glands and (oil) glands are present.
  • Their body is divisible into head, neck, trunk and tail. Movable eyelids are present.
  • Females have milk-producing mammary glands which secrete milk for the nourishment of the young.
  • Fleshy external ears (pinnae) are present.
  • Two pairs of limbs are present with five digits of claws, nails or hoofs.
  • A muscular diaphragm is present which separates thoracic and abdominal cavities.
  • Respiration is carried out through lungs only.
  • Heart is four-chambered.
  • They are Viviparous.
  • Examples: Macropus (Kangaroo), Rattus (rat), Felis (cat), Macaca (monkey), Homo (Human beings).

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