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02 Development

What Development Promises – Different People, Different Goals


  • Different persons can have different developmental goals.
  • What may be development for one may not be development for the other and may even be destructive.


Income and other goals


  • People are common in their desire for regular work, better wages, and decent price for their crops or other products that they produce.
  • They also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, and respect of others and resent discrimination.
  • If women are engaged in paid work, their dignity in the household and society increases but if there is respect for women, there would be more sharing of housework and a greater acceptance of women working outside.
  • Provision of a safe and secure environment is necessary for women to take up a variety of jobs or run a business.

How to compare different countries or states?


  • Greater income is considered to be one important goal and countries with higher income are considered more developed than others with less income.
  • Countries have different populations, so comparing total income will indicate the average income of a person.
  • The average income is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
  • This criterion is used in classifying countries in World Development Reports, brought out by the World Bank
  • According to this countries are classified as:
    • Rich countries: Countries with per capita income of US$ 12236 per annum and above in 2016.
    • Low-income countries: Those with per capita income of US$ 1005 or less.

Income and other criteria


  • Haryana has the highest per capita income and Bihar is at the bottom.
  • So, if per capita income were to be used as the measure of development, Haryana will be considered the most developed and Bihar the least developed state among the three.

Public Facilities

  • In many areas, children, particularly girls, are not able to go to high school because the government or society has not provided adequate facilities even in modern times.
  • Kerala has a low Infant Mortality Rate because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
  • Similarly, in some states, health and nutritional status of people of such states is certainly likely to be better because the Public Distribution System (PDS) functions well.

Human Development Report

  • Human Development Report published by UNDP compares countries based on the educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
  • Life Expectancy at birth denotes average expected length of life of a person at the time of birth.
  • Per Capita Income is calculated in dollars for all countries so that it can be compared.

Sustainability of Development

  • Renewable resources:
    • Groundwater is an example of renewable resources that is replenished by nature as in the case of crops and plants.
    • But, these resources may be overused too, if we use more than what is being replenished by rain.
  • Non-renewable resources:
    • These resources will get exhausted after years of use because there is a fixed stock of these on earth which cannot be replenished.
    • Although new sources are discovered and add to the stock, it will get exhausted over time.

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