Magnetic field is directly proportional to the current passing through the wire and it is inversely proportional to the distance from the wire.
While grasping (or holding) the current-carrying wire in your right hand so that your thumb points in the direction of current, then the direction in which your fingers encircle the wire will give the direction of magnetic field lines around the wire.
The magnetic field produced has the following characteristics:
(i) Directly proportional to the current passing through the circular loop (or circular wire), and
(ii) Inversely proportional to the radius of circular loop (or circular wire).
Solenoid: A long cylindrical coil of insulated copper wire of large number of circular turns is called a solenoid.
The magnetic field produced by a current-carrying solenoid is similar to the magnetic field produced by a bar magnet.
The strength of magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid depends on:
(i) Number of turns in the solenoid: Larger the number of turns in the solenoid, greater will be the magnetism produced.
(ii) Strength of current in the solenoid: Larger the current passed through solenoid, stronger will be the magnetic field produced.
(iii) Nature of the core material: The use of soft iron rod as core in a solenoid produces the strongest magnetism.
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