04 Carbon and its compound

SOME IMPORTANT CARBON COMPOUNDS

ETHANOL

  • The formula of ethanol is C2H5
  • The common name of ethanol is ethyl alcohol.
  • Ethanol is the most common and most widely used alcohol.
  • Ethanol is also called just alcohol.
ethanol

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL

  • Ethanol is a colourless liquid at room temperature having a pleasant smell and a burning taste.
  • Ethanol is a volatile liquid having a low boiling point of  (351 K). The melting point of ethanol is 156K
  • It is lighter than water; Ethanol mixes with water in any proportion.
  • Ethanol containing 5 per cent water is called rectified spirit. It is a neutral compound.

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL

COMBUSTION:

  • Ethanol is a highly inflammable liquid.
  • Ethanol burns readily in air to form carbon dioxide and water vapour, and releasing a lot of heat and light:
chemicalEthanol
  • The burning of ethanol gives a clear flame producing a lot of heat. Hence, the use of ethanol as fuel.
  • Some countries add ethanol to petrol to use as a fuel in cars. This makes ethanol an additive in petrol.
  • Sugarcane crop is the source of large-scale production of ethanol.
  • Cane sugar present in molasses ferments  (breakdown by enzymes)  to produce ethanol.

OXIDATION

  • Heating of ethanol with alkaline potassium permanganate solution (or acidified potassium dichromate solution) results in oxidizing ethanoic acid:
oxidation

REACTION WITH SODIUM METAL

  • Ethanol reacts with sodium to form sodium ethoxide and hydrogen gas:
reactionSodiumMetal
  • This reaction is used as a test for ethanol.

DEHYDRATION

  • When ethanol is heated with excess of concentrated sulphuric acid at 170oC (443 K), it gets dehydrated to form ethane (which is an unsaturated hydrocarbon):
substitution

REACTION WITH ETHANOIC ACID (FORMATION OF ESTER-ESTERIFICATION)

  • Ethanol reacts with ethanoic acid in the presence of a few drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to form a sweet smelling ester, ethyl ethanoate:
reacEthanoicAcid
  • The reaction in which a carboxylic acid combines with an alcohol to form an ester is called esterification.

REACTION WITH UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS

  • When ethanol is heated at 443 K in presence of excess conc. sulphuric acid alkene is obtained.
CH3CH2OH conc. H2SO4CH2=CH2 + H2O

Ethyl alcohol                          Ethene         water

  • Water is removed by sulphuric acid which acts as a dehydrating agent.

USES OF ETHANOL (ETHYL ALCOHOL)

  • It is used in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, lacquers, medicines, perfumes, dyes, soaps and synthetic rubber.
  • It is used as a solvent. Many organic compounds which are insoluble in water are soluble in ethyl alcohol.
  • Being a good solvent, ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is used in medicines such as tincture iodine, cough syrups and many tonics.
  • It is used as a fuel in cars along with petrol. It is also used as a fuel in spirit lamps.
  • It is used in alcoholic drinks (beverages) like whisky, wine, beer and other liquors.
  • Whisky contains about 35% of ethyl alcohol, wine contains 10% to 20% of ethyl alcohol, and beer contains about 6% of ethyl alcohol.
  • It 4 is used as an antiseptic to sterilize wounds and syrings in hospitals and dispensaries.

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF DRINKING ALCOHOL

  • Alcohol slows down the activity of the nervous system and the brain resulting in impairment of decision making of the individual.
  • The person’s ‘reaction’ becomes slow. Hence, a person driving a car under the influence of alcohol cannot judge resulting in increased road accidents .
  • Drinking alcohol heavily leads to staggered movement, slurred speech (unclear speech), Blurred vision, dizziness, and vomiting.
  • Drinking of large quantities of alcohol makes a man unconscious. He might even die.
  • Addiction of alcohol might result in addiction.
  • Addiction of alcohol over a long period of time can damage the stomach, liver, heart and even brain.
  • The liver disease known as ‘cirrhosis’ caused by alcohol can lead to death
  • The drinking of adulterated alcohol containing methyl alcohol (methanol), causes severe poisoning leading to blindness and even death. .
  • So, to prevent the misuse of ethanol in industries, methanol is added which makes it unfit for drinking and the process is called denaturing.

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